td r
this is from wikipedia, i think its interesting because it shows how this set of words changed through english, though what impresses me most is how it more or less consistent. maybe this is a better way to think about middle or modern english (depending on your preference, of course). i would like to see how the other west germanic languages look in this group of tables, but i didnt find the information quickly online. however what i do know from my highschool german and college dutch, is that it is very similar to the general germanic scheme.


First person personal pronouns

Singular

CaseOld EnglishMiddle EnglishModern Englishdutchgerman
Nominativeic.I / ichIikich
Accusativeme- / mec.me memij (me)mich
Dativeme-mir
Genitivemi-nmin / mimy, minemijn (m'n)mein

Plural

CaseOld EnglishMiddle EnglishModern Englishdutchgerman
Nominativewe-wewewij (we)wir
Accusativeu-s / u-sic.usus onsuns
Dativeu-s
Genitiveu-ser / u-reure / ourour, oursons/onzeunser

Second person personal pronouns

n.b. þ is a letter from Old English, roughly corresponding to th.

Old and Middle English singular to the Modern English archaic informal

CaseOld EnglishMiddle English Modern Englishdutchgerman
Nominativeþu-þu / thouthou (you)jij (je)du
Accusativeþe- / þec.þé / theethee (you)jou (je)dich
Dativeþe-dir
Genitiveþi-nþi / þi-n / þi-ne / thy /thin / thinethy, thine (your)jouw (je)dein

Old and Middle English plural to the archaic formal to the modern general

Case Old English Middle English Modern Englishdutchgerman
Nominativeg.e-ye / 3e / you youUSie
Accusativee-ow / e-owic.you, ya
Dativee-owIhnen
Genitivee-oweryouryour, yoursUwIhr

You in the nominative case was used in Middle English only as a formal but not as a plural pronoun. So there was a difference between You are (singular formal) and Ye are (plural informal).

Plural

CaseOld EnglishMiddle EnglishModern Englishdutchgerman
Nominativege3e, yeyou, yejullie, gij (ge), u (we)ihr
Accusativeéow3ou, eu, you, 3iu jullie, ueuch
Dative
Genitiveéower3ur(e), your(e)yoursjullie, uweuer

Third person personal pronouns

Feminine singular
Case Old English Middle English Modern Englishdutchgerman
Nominativehe-oheo / sche / ho / he / 3hoshezij (ze)sie
Accusativehi-ehire / hure / her / heore herhaar (d'r)
Dativehireihr
Genitivehirehir / hire / heore / her / hereher, hers

Masculine singular

Case Old English Middle English Modern Englishdutchgerman
Nominativehe-hehehij (ie)er
Accusativehinehimhimhem ('m)ihn
Dativehimihm
Genitivehishishiszijn (z'n)sein

Neuter singular

Case Old English Middle English Modern Englishdutchgerman
Nominativehithit / itithet ('t)es
Accusativehithit / it / him
Dativehimihm
Genitivehishis / itsitszijn (z'n)ihn

Plural

Case Old English Middle English Modern Englishdutchgerman
Nominativehi-ehe / hi / ho / hie / þai / þeitheyzij (ze)sie
Accusativehi-ehem / ham / heom / þaim / þem / þamthem, 'emhen, ze
Dativehimhun, zeihnen
Genitivehirohere / heore / hore / þair / þartheir, theirshunihrer